English-Russian-Ukrainian Dictionary on GIS and RES
Application of geospatial information is on a steep upsurge. Both governments and businesses (industry, transport, agriculture, environmental management, emergency, area administration etc.) get more and more aware of the fact that information on objects (phenomena and processes) location and positioning is the key component of efficient decision-making. Maps and ensuant content start to feel at home in the mainstream, and handsome investments of the companies like Google, Microsoft, Apple, Amazon and ESRI make custom mapping, location-based services, geo-tagging really ubiquitous.
In compliance with standards of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and in line with demand for inter-operability, there evidently exist several interrelated trends, determining the evolution of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) communities for 5 -10 years to come. To mention just some of them: cloud computing, mobile arrangements, crowd-sourcing geospatial content, GIS analysis, augmented reality, navigation, integration of geospatial data into design etc. The spread of Internet-and spatially-driven mobile devices call strongly for integration of services, access to databases, merger of applications, - those, which can exist “in cloud” and are able of serving great amounts of customers at the same time.
According to competent Western experts of geomatics, GIS technologies and RS, inter alia, the President of ESRI (Environmental System Research Institute) Jack Dangermond, 4 main trends of their development can be singled out.
1. Sharp increase in volume of geospatial data of all types due to expansion of data collection methods, - both through growth of potentials of “common” positioning techniques, say, with satellites, aviation, lidar survey, - and also thanks to implementation of upstart (for geospatial information) arrangements, like and mass-media. The need for handling knowledge-rich volumes entails the application of certain special techniques for management and processing of corresponding data-flows (big data), for example, multiprocessing, data-flow processing etc. Thus, in many areas where IT technologies are used, a great demand for specialists with knowledge of «big data» is registered.
2. Expansion of cloud technologies. During recent years cloud technologies have taken up firm positions in nearly all IT-spheres, where customers are offered soft- and hardware, and enjoy supporting infrastructure. The architecture “desktop/cloud device” appears most promising, since it provides strong ties of experts with “local ground people” operating various tools and instruments. The cloud technologies’ advantages, like time-, means- and resource-saving, will incite mass migration of companies into the “cloud”. Since in the nearest future data production will steeply mount, the sector’s players will widen up their paddock as they will get access to critically significant data, creation of tools for interpretation and implementation of pictorial data. As a result, GIS technologies will evolve from data production to a real-time applications in location-based services and geo-analysis. Corporation ESRI is among the world leaders in the sphere of cloud GIS creation.
3. Trends in development of techniques and applications. Experts acknowledge quantity input of sensors – remote, fixed and mobile. The construct “people as sensors” (crowd-sourcing) is winning wide recognition as one of the richest channels of spatial data. We state augmentation of data link via Internet («Linked data» technologies), which adds to importance of arrangements that pinpoint positioning. Mobile munitions feature strong tendency of piling advance. Significance of RS data grows in GIS projects. There are serious changes in obtaining of spatial data: most often there is no need for fresh mapping session, since the required data have been archived before. Serious changes happened to Web-browsers: they turned into important component and shaped out the platform for up-to-date applications. All the options provided by those Browsers are unified by concept HTML5. GIS with open source code are progressing, and soon they will challenge commercial solutions for most popular desktop, mobile and Web-mapmaking software. Data collection systems of the type «OpenStreetMap» will play more relevant part.
4. Proliferation of geospatial analysis (GSA). In recent years GSA turned into a platform for development of applications with view to implantation of maps and elements of spatial analysis into business analysis. In particular, GSA tools, suggested by companies like ESRI, make it possible to integrate geospatial services into other systems, which will presumably promote deeper investigation of business dynamics. GSA (within GIS domain) is closely related to GeoDesign trend, which, on the one hand, adopts the concepts of environmental sciences, geography, planning and comprehensive analysis of territorial development, and, on the other hand, employs cross-disciplinary, synergetic approach in solution of key problems in optimization of location, orientation and characteristics of projects of both global and local scale.
Emergence of GSA-related applications will call for special knowledge and skills of work with such tools. So, educational establishments which train specialists in geoinformatics and GIS, must amend their curriculum correspondingly. Besides, GSA technologies will recruit specialists with knowledge of geography, spatial intelligence, informatics, mathematics, basics of business, economy, sociology etc.
To say it otherwise, creation of GIS systems in the nearest future will form the need for professionals possessing deep knowledge of data processes and their life cycle, that is, modeling, building and deploying of high quality geospatial solutions. Such systems should be able of incorporation of data of various precedence (space, atmosphere, Earth), which allows the production of “smart” maps displaying fresh and expressly updated information from different sources with possibility to investigate 3D-5D dynamic reality.
The earliest attempt at normalizing of geoinformational terminology was made by the authors in 2007 in compilation of English-Russian-Ukrainian Geoinformatics Dictionary.
The authors’ expectation is that this brief review of principal trends in development of geoinformatics, GIS and RS will help to understand the springs and motivations of this publication. Its main peculiarity is the germination of a great number of terms and notions which incite the pressing need for terminological actualization.
Translation of terms and collocations is given with various degrees of omnitude. In authors’ opinion, both informatics and geoinformatics abound in conceptual notions which give rise to many other connotations. Such, for example, as: digital (цифровой), projection (проекция), content (контент), GIS (ГИС), GPS and some others. Exploration of content is extremely important for process of education. At the same time, a lot of expressions regularly appear, without which it is impossible to orient oneself in Anglophone matter dedicated to GIS technologies and RS, image processing etc. Those terms – alas! – are missing in majority of computer dictionaries. That is why corresponding meanings are interpreted in this publication within context of their basic usage, or semantic content is suggested without complementary explanations.
In preparation of the Dictionary the authors referred to various informational sources, among which the most prominent place is occupied by «Dictionary on Remote Earth Sensing», prepared by a group of authors headed by the Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine V. Lialko, and D.Sc. engineering M. Popov. Of special mentioning are also the publications of Russian scientists “Geoinformatics. Explanatory Dictionary of Basic Terms” edited by A. Berliant and A. Koshkariov, and “English-Russian Explanatory Dictionary on Geoinformatics”, prepared by V. Andrianov.
Essentially helpful were the communications of competent Western specialists in electronic magazine Geospatial Today dedicated to forecast of geoinformatics, GIS and RES market situation in 2013: «Interesting days ahead… Outlook 2013».
Certainly, like any major effort, the Dictionary is far from perfect. The authors will welcome any remarks and comments regards improvement of both contents and manner of presentation. Please, use the link: email@example.com